Aviation Business Journal 1st Quarter 2013 - 23

on these manuals. I have spoken with
someone recently who purchased a
manual off the shelf. It is possible
there are good “canned” manuals
available, but overall this is a “you
get what you pay for” situation. If it
seems too good to be true, it probably
is. In this case, the company bought
a manual for $1,000 but spent 18
months negotiating with the FAA
to get the thing accepted. Do not
skimp on manuals. These documents
describe how your company will
function. Good manuals that reflect
how you ACTUALLY INTEND TO
OPERATE are a wise investment.

Regulations Overview
Part 119
There are three sections or
“Parts” of Title 14 Aeronautics and
Aerospace of the Code of Federal
Regulations that are critical to
Part 135 operations: Parts 91, 119,
and 135. Part 119 applies to the
operation of civil aircraft as an air
carrier or commercial operator.
If an aircraft operator wants to
receive compensation (money, fresh
baked goods, or any other form
of compensation) for a flight, the

Aviation Business Journal | 1st Quarter 2013	

operator must be authorized to do so
under Part 119.
Part 119 outlines the requirements
for Part 121 (scheduled airlines),
Part 125 (large aircraft — 6,000 or
more pounds of payload or 20 or
more passenger seats), and Part 135
operations.
Part 119 also sets requirements for
management personnel. It requires
that individuals be assigned to these
management positions: Director of
Operations, Chief Pilot, and Director
of Maintenance. It also sets very
specific experience and training
qualifications for these individuals.
(These three are sometimes referred
to as the “Three Wisemen.”) An
operator of an aircraft with 10 or
more aircraft seats must also have a
Chief Inspector.
These individuals hold significant
responsibility and authority over the
Air Carrier Certificate. It is important
to note that these individuals are also
the primary individuals who could be
subject to serious enforcement action
from the FAA if the air carrier violates
the rules.
Part 119 also establishes
“Operations Specifications,” or “Ops
Specs,” which are the bottom rung of
the “rule” hierarchy. Ops Specs are

typically operator-specific and either
provide a limitation to an operator (for
example, an operator may only conduct
commercial flights in the contiguous
U.S., Canada, and the Bahamas) or
provide an exception to a rule (for
example, an operator may conduct
approaches to a lower minimum — in
worse weather conditions — than
usually required by regulation).

Part 135
Part 135 of the Code of Federal
Regulations applies to each “person”
(the term “person” also applies to a
company or other entity, in this case)
who holds an Air Carrier Certificate
under Part 119. To review, Part 119
provides the authority to accept
compensation for air transportation.
Part 135 is one method of doing
so. Part 135 is often referred to as
“charter operations.”
There are two types of operations
authorized under Part 135: commuter
and on-demand. Only a very small
percentage of Part 135 operators are
authorized to conduct scheduled
commuter operations. The vast
majority of Part 135 air carriers are
on-demand operators.
Continued on page 25

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Aviation Business Journal 1st Quarter 2013

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Aviation Business Journal 1st Quarter 2013

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