Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 9

cooking in consumer settings as well. The primary focus of
this study was on meat and poultry, since these products are
relevant to proper cooking temperatures and thermometer use
in reducing the risk of foodborne illness and are potentially
consumed raw or undercooked at temporary events.
Meat and poultry contain many pathogens that cause
foodborne illness and that occur as natural flora in animal
gastrointestinal (GI) tracts and hides. Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are commonly found in
beef and have been known to cause serious GI illness in
consumers who are young, old, or immunocompromised
(17). Raw poultry products can contain Salmonella spp. or
Campylobacter spp., other human pathogens that can cause
serious GI disease in individuals with weakened immune
systems (17). In whole cuts of meats, pathogens are most
likely to be present on the surface of the meat; when these
meats are ground or mechanically tenderized, the pathogen
may internalize so as to be present in the center of the food
product (11, 17). In the United States, ground beef is the
most consumed beef product, making up 62% of domestic
beef consumption (6). The potential for internalization
highlights the importance of heating the meat to an internal
temperature sufficient to reduce the pathogens and decrease
the risk of foodborne illness.
Cooking food to the proper internal temperature is
a practice that is not universally adopted by consumers
around the world. Eating rare or undercooked beef is a
cultural norm that varies in locations across the U.S. but is
prevalent enough to warrant a consumer advisory section
of the FDA's Model Food Code (16, 17). Studies show
that in consumers' homes, people rarely use thermometers
to determine when their meat is fully cooked even when
thermometers are owned and accessible (4, 10, 14). When
thermometers were used, most people were overcooking
their meat, but others finished cooking before the target
internal temperature was reached. The infrequency of
thermometer use in consumer kitchens raises questions on
their use at more temporary food preparation events.
Temporary events are defined here as non-permanent
events where food is served to people without profit. These
events include tailgates, community picnics, festivals,
and other gatherings. In the United States, tailgates are
informal events that take place in parking lots prior to
large events where the attendees prepare and consume
food outside, typically out of the back of a car or truck.
Preparing risky foods at temporary events poses a particular
risk for foodborne illness because of the lack of food
safety infrastructure. Temporary events typically do not
have proper hand washing facilities, training of food
preparers, or storage conditions. Historically, foodborne
illness outbreaks have been linked to consumption of food
prepared at these types of events (12, 16).
Successful interventions take more than knowledge into
account, as knowledge is not the sole indicator of behavior

change. Many behavior change models recognize attitudes,
perception, opportunity, motivation, and social norms
as precursors for intentions and behavior change (1, 18).
Additionally, targeted interventions resonate better with
subjects than ones with generalized information (8). Governmental agencies have released food safety information
specific for temporary events such as tailgates, but little
has been discovered about delivering these interventions
in person.
This study aimed to assess the current use of food thermometers at American university football tailgates and use
an intervention to provoke behavior change in those who
do not already use a food thermometer. The hypothesis was
that most tailgaters do not use food thermometers but that
an in-person intervention could impact behaviors.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
An intervention was used to educate people grilling at
university football tailgates on the importance of using a food
thermometer when preparing food at temporary events. To
evaluate the effectiveness of the intervention, two in-person
structured surveys, including interviews and observations,
were developed to determine food thermometer usage before
and after delivery (Fig. 1). The data collection included a
mixed-methods approach of observation and surveying.
Mixed-methods tactics incorporate multiple different
qualitative and quantitative research tools to maximize the
information received (7). Surveying allowed collection
of self-reported information from participants about past
situations, and observation allowed collection of information
on current food thermometer use without the bias associated
with self-reporting.
Intervention development
The primary purpose of the intervention was to engage
with people who were not already using a food thermometer while grilling. An active approach was taken in which
participants were not only given the correct information
and materials to change their behavior but also invited to
participate in conversations about the importance of the
subject. These conversations were not forced or scripted;
rather, any participant could seek any further information of
interest to them.
Distributed intervention materials were designed specifically for distribution to participants who did not currently
use food thermometers. The packet included a food thermometer, an apron, and a cold drink holder, which were all
chosen because of their functionality in tailgating situations
as well as their ability to display food safety information for
others to see. These visual materials contribute to the idea
that other people are participating in the behavior and may
draw others to participate in this social norm. Additionally,
the packet included a 5 × 7" card with food safety information on using temperature and food thermometer use to

January/February Food Protection Trends

9



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018

Assessing the Usage of Food Thermometers at American University Football Tailgates
An Assessment of Potential Heavy Metal Contaminants in Bivalve Shellfish from Aquaculture Zones along the Coast of New South Wales, Australia
Mental Models of Pasteurized and Unpasteurized Milk Product Consumption in the United States
Sanitary Carcass Dressing and Food Safety Practices in South Central U.S. Small and Very Small Establishments Manufacturing Fresh and Not-Ready-to-Eat Pork Products
Beyond the Bio - Joe Frank
PDG Highlight The Dairy Safety & Quality Professional Development Group
General Interest Paper The Role of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) in the Fight against Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR)
Industry Products
Coming Events
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - Cover1
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - Cover2
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 1
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 2
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 3
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 4
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 5
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 6
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 7
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - Assessing the Usage of Food Thermometers at American University Football Tailgates
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 9
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 10
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 11
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 12
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 13
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 14
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 15
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 16
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 17
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - An Assessment of Potential Heavy Metal Contaminants in Bivalve Shellfish from Aquaculture Zones along the Coast of New South Wales, Australia
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 19
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 20
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 21
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 22
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 23
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 24
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 25
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 26
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - Mental Models of Pasteurized and Unpasteurized Milk Product Consumption in the United States
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 28
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 29
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 30
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 31
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 32
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 33
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 34
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 35
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 36
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 37
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 38
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 39
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 40
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 41
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 42
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 43
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 44
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 45
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 46
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 47
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 48
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 49
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 50
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 51
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - Sanitary Carcass Dressing and Food Safety Practices in South Central U.S. Small and Very Small Establishments Manufacturing Fresh and Not-Ready-to-Eat Pork Products
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 53
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 54
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 55
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 56
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 57
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 58
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 59
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 60
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 61
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 62
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 63
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 64
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 65
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 66
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 67
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - Beyond the Bio - Joe Frank
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 69
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 70
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - PDG Highlight The Dairy Safety & Quality Professional Development Group
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - General Interest Paper The Role of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) in the Fight against Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR)
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 73
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 74
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 75
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 76
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 77
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 78
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 79
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 80
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 81
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - Industry Products
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 83
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 84
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 85
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 86
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 87
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - Coming Events
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - Cover3
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - Cover4
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