Reviewers' Information Pack - (Page 5)

Reviewers’ Information Pack Supporting the Peer Review Process 2. ABOUT PEER REVIEW 2.5. Types of peer review There are, essentially, three varieties of peer review: Open Review Reviewer and author are known to each other. Advantage: Some scientists feel this is the best way to prevent malicious comments, stop plagiarism, prevent reviewers from drawing upon their own ‘agenda’ and encourage open, honest reviewing. Disadvantage: Others argue the opposite view. They see Open Review as a less honest process in which politeness or fear of retribution may cause a reviewer to withhold or tone down criticism. For example, junior reviewers may hesitate to criticize more esteemed authors for fear of damaging their prospects. Independent studies tend to support this. Single Blind Review The names of the reviewers are hidden from the author. This is the traditional method of reviewing, and is, by far, the most common type. Advantage: Reviewer anonymity allows for impartial decisions free from influence by the author. Disadvantages: Authors fear the risk that reviewers working in the same field may withhold submission of the review in order to delay publication, thereby giving the reviewer himself the opportunity to publish first. Reviewers may use their anonymity as justification for being unnecessarily critical or harsh when commenting on the author’s work. Double Blind Review Both the reviewer and the author remain anonymous. Advantages: Author anonymity prevents any reviewer bias based on, for example, an author’s country of origin or previous controversial work. Articles written by ‘prestigious’ or renowned authors are considered on the basis of the content of their papers, rather than on the author’s reputation. Disadvantage: It is uncertain whether a paper can ever truly be ‘blind’ – especially in specialty ‘niche’ areas. Reviewers can often identify the author through the paper’s style, subject matter or through self-citation. 5

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Reviewers' Information Pack

Reviewers' Information Pack
About Elsevier
1.1 A Short History of Elsevier
About Peer Review
2.1. What is Peer Review?
2.2. Who Are Reviewers?
2.3. Why Reviewers Review?
2.4. Peer Review Process
2.5. Types of Peer Review
Duties of Reviewers
3.1. Contribution to Editorial Decisions
3.2. Promptness
3.3. Confidentiality
3.4. Standards of Objectivity
3.5. Acknowledgement of Sources
3.6. Disclosure and Conflict of Interest
3.7. Adherence to Elsevier Publishing Ethics
Peer Review System
4.1. The EES
4.2. Tools to Help
Supporting Our Reviewers
5.1. Customer Front End
Listening to our Reviewers
6.1 Reviewer Feedback Programme
6.2. Reviewers’ Home
A Brief Guide to Reviewing
7.1. Purpose of Peer Review
7.2. On Being Asked To Review
7.3. Conducting The Review
7.4. Communicating Your Report To The Editor

Reviewers' Information Pack