September/October 2019 - 16

POWERLINE strength and conditioning
strength training for
YOUNGER ATHLETES
By Ken Mannie, columnist
Many of the questions I receive on a regular basis are
from elementary and middle school teachers/coaches
on the safety and efficacy of strength training for 7- to
14-year-olds. The trepidation is understandable, and while
caution is always the operative word for any age group, the
prepubescent years require an added layer of oversight.
However, if approached with caution, prudence, intelligent
screening, planning and qualified instruction, most of
these concerns can be put to rest.
The most prominent safety question revolves around
the epiphyseal junctures ( " growth plates " )
at the ends of bones. There had been
some speculation that strength
training could damage the
composition of this bony
matter, from which
healthy bone continues
to emanate until full
skeletal growth is
completed. This is
where the " growth
stunting " myth
surfaced.
Contrary to this
and other misgivings
surrounding youth
strength training, The
American Academy of
Pediatrics (AAP) states
that strength training
programs have no apparent
adverse effect on linear
growth or growth plates. As
with any athlete, the AAP states
that a medical evaluation of the child
prior to initiating a strength training program
is in order.
As defined by the AAP, " Strength training is the use of
resistance methods to increase one's ability to exert or
resist force. " Among the benefits strength training may
provide for both preadolescents and adolescents are:
* Possible improvements in sport performance.
* Possible reduction in the incidence/severity of injuries.
* Augmentation of the growth of muscle tissue that
normally occurs with pubertal growth.
* Improved body composition.
16 SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 2019
* Improved mental wellbeing and self-image.
* May stimulate bone mineralization and have a positive
effect on bone density.
* Successful applications in the rehabilitation of injuries.
By 7 to 8 years of age, many of the balance and postural
requirements of daily living are engrained in most children.
In light of this, the AAP recommends the introduction of
fundamental movement skills - either general or sportspecific
- prior to a regimented strength training program.
In time, movement (athletic/sport specific) and strength
training can work in concert and feed off
each other when they are performed
simultaneously.
Strength training was once
believed by clinicians to
be relatively ineffective
in children until they
had significant
levels of circulating
testosterone - a
required component
in muscle growth
(hypertrophy).
However, research
has demonstrated
that children can
improve their
strength by anywhere
from 30% to 50% after
just eight to 12 weeks of
a well-designed, properly
administered and executed
strength training program.
We now know that twiceweekly
strength training sessions for
both boys and girls between the ages of 7
and 12 years can result in significant gains in overall
strength. Children will experience initial strength gains
via neural adaptations, as opposed to hypertrophy. What
likely happens is an improvement in the number and
coordination of activated motor neurons, in addition to a
heightened firing rate and pattern.
Prepubertal children and postpubertal adolescents
will respond differently to strength training. Due mainly
to higher levels of circulating androgens, adolescents
have a higher capacity to experience greater absolute

September/October 2019

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of September/October 2019

September/October 2019 - 1
September/October 2019 - 2
September/October 2019 - 3
September/October 2019 - 4
September/October 2019 - 5
September/October 2019 - 6
September/October 2019 - 7
September/October 2019 - 8
September/October 2019 - 9
September/October 2019 - 10
September/October 2019 - 11
September/October 2019 - 12
September/October 2019 - 13
September/October 2019 - 14
September/October 2019 - 15
September/October 2019 - 16
September/October 2019 - 17
September/October 2019 - 18
September/October 2019 - 19
September/October 2019 - 20
September/October 2019 - 21
September/October 2019 - 22
September/October 2019 - 23
September/October 2019 - 24
September/October 2019 - 25
September/October 2019 - 26
September/October 2019 - 27
September/October 2019 - 28
September/October 2019 - 29
September/October 2019 - 30
September/October 2019 - 31
September/October 2019 - 32
September/October 2019 - 33
September/October 2019 - 34
September/October 2019 - 35
September/October 2019 - 36
September/October 2019 - 37
September/October 2019 - 38
September/October 2019 - 39
September/October 2019 - 40
September/October 2019 - 41
September/October 2019 - 42
September/October 2019 - 43
September/October 2019 - 44
September/October 2019 - 45
September/October 2019 - 46
September/October 2019 - 47
September/October 2019 - 48
September/October 2019 - 49
September/October 2019 - 50
September/October 2019 - 51
September/October 2019 - 52
September/October 2019 - 53
September/October 2019 - 54
September/October 2019 - 55
September/October 2019 - 56
September/October 2019 - 57
September/October 2019 - 58
September/October 2019 - 59
September/October 2019 - 60
September/October 2019 - 61
September/October 2019 - 62
September/October 2019 - 63
September/October 2019 - 64
September/October 2019 - 65
September/October 2019 - 66
September/October 2019 - 67
September/October 2019 - 68
September/October 2019 - 69
September/October 2019 - 70
https://www.nxtbook.com/greatamericanmediaservices/CAD/bison-2023-2024-catalog
https://www.nxtbook.com/greatamericanmediaservices/CAD/january-february-2023
https://www.nxtbook.com/greatamericanmediaservices/CAD/november-december-2022
https://www.nxtbook.com/greatamericanmediaservices/CAD/september-october2022
https://www.nxtbook.com/greatamericanmediaservices/CAD/july-august-2022
https://www.nxtbook.com/greatamericanmediaservices/CAD/cad-2022-a-d-toolkit
https://www.nxtbook.com/greatamericanmediaservices/CAD/may-june-2022
https://www.nxtbook.com/greatamericanmediaservices/CAD/march-april-2022
https://www.nxtbook.com/greatamericanmediaservices/CAD/winningfootballplaybook-2022
https://www.nxtbook.com/greatamericanmediaservices/CAD/january-february-2022
https://www.nxtbook.com/greatamericanmediaservices/CAD/november-december-2021
https://www.nxtbook.com/greatamericanmediaservices/CAD/september-october-2021
https://www.nxtbook.com/greatamericanmediaservices/CAD/july-august-2021
https://www.nxtbook.com/greatamericanmediaservices/CAD/june-2021
https://www.nxtbook.com/greatamericanmediaservices/CAD/april-may-2021
https://www.nxtbook.com/greatamericanmediaservices/CAD/march-2021
https://www.nxtbook.com/greatamericanmediaservices/CAD/february-2021
https://www.nxtbook.com/greatamericanmediaservices/CAD/techguide-2021
https://www.nxtbook.com/greatamericanmediaservices/CAD/january-2021
https://www.nxtbook.com/greatamericanmediaservices/CAD/november-december-2020
https://www.nxtbook.com/greatamericanmediaservices/CAD/september-october-2020
https://www.nxtbook.com/greatamericanmediaservices/CAD/july-august-2020-nonmi
https://www.nxtbook.com/greatamericanmediaservices/CAD/july-august-2020-mi
https://www.nxtbook.com/greatamericanmediaservices/CAD/june-2020
https://www.nxtbook.com/greatamericanmediaservices/CAD/april-may-2020
https://www.nxtbook.com/greatamericanmediaservices/CAD/march-2020
https://www.nxtbook.com/greatamericanmediaservices/CAD/february-2020
https://www.nxtbook.com/greatamericanmediaservices/CAD/techguide-2020
https://www.nxtbook.com/greatamericanmediaservices/CAD/motivationalcalendar-2020
https://www.nxtbook.com/greatamericanmediaservices/CAD/january-2020
https://www.nxtbook.com/greatamericanmediaservices/CAD/november-december-2019
https://www.nxtbook.com/greatamericanmediaservices/CAD/september-october-2019
https://www.nxtbook.com/greatamericanmediaservices/CAD/july-august-2019
https://www.nxtbook.com/greatamericanmediaservices/CAD/june-2019
https://www.nxtbook.com/greatamericanmediaservices/CAD/april-may-2019
https://www.nxtbook.com/greatamericanmediaservices/CAD/march-2019
https://www.nxtbook.com/greatamericanmediaservices/CAD/february-2019
https://www.nxtbook.com/greatamericanmediaservices/CAD/techguide-2019
https://www.nxtbook.com/greatamericanmediaservices/CAD/motivationalcalendar-2019
https://www.nxtbook.com/greatamericanmediaservices/CAD/january-2019
https://www.nxtbookmedia.com