Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2001 - 39

Interview with

Fernando Pamplona
A few days before the main carnival parade, I was privileged to
interview Fernando Pamplona, perhaps the best known voice
of Carnaval in Brazil. Felipe Ferreira, in his book, O Marques
e o Jegue, claims Pamplona revolutionized the carnival parades in 1960 with his designs for the Salgueiro Samba
School.
A wonderfully engaging man, Pamplona clearly loves
Carnaval and, although he is now retired from his job as professor in the School of Fine Arts of the Federal University of Rio
de Janeiro, he still provides radio commentary on the parade
each year. My friend, José Henrique Moreira, accompanied me
and acted as translator. We settled into our chairs at a bar in
Ipanema and ordered drinks and food-Pamplona's one interview requirement.
Treva Reimer: Tell me about the changes in Carnaval
in the past twenty years or so.
Fernando Pamplona: Everything changed! When I started to
work in 1959 in Salguiero, the school was a society
made of smaller societies. Each school was a group of
smaller societies. These are two different things-the
samba schools and the samba parade. These small societies were called alas like the sections are called now.
There was a president and the queen of the ala was usually the daughter, the wife, or the lover of this president.
There was a contest among the alas before the competition against the other schools.
Everything was made by the local community. This
word "communidade" is being used now just plain-
with no meaning at all. Everyone says about samba, "this
is from the communidade"-but then it was really
from the community.
In the whole parade-Salgueiro's parade-just
one ala was not composed of people from the community. This was forty black men led by a black composer
who lived in Botafogo. He was from Botafogo and he
brought his ala from Botafogo to Salgueiro. Salgueiro is
a hill near Tijuca.
I intend for you to understand the difference today.
Seventy percent are not from here. These people come
from Scandinavia, Europe, Japan, and they just buy their
costumes and come just to have fun. They don't even
know which school they are with.
The samba sounds were not recorded at the time.
When they started to record the samba songs, the composers started to earn more money and to have houses
and buy cars and be rich. This started a competition in
the composers ala-the group of composers in the
school-and nowadays this competition is very tough
and some were killed because of this competition.
We worked like amateurs-we didn't work for
money. Salgueiro created this group of people that were
all experts and they worked together and interchanged
38

W I N T E R

2 0 0 1

TD & T

A to F. The higher groups get more money and more prestige. As part of the competition each year the two schools with the fewest points in each group move down
and the top two schools from each group move up. Competition can be fierce. Residents of Rio (cariocas) speak about their school with the same passion they have
for their soccer team.
The politics within each school varies but generally each has a president and a
board of directors. The school is divided into sections (alas) and each section has
a president who is responsible for making and selling the costumes for their section. The number of sections in a school depends on its size. For example, Tuiuti, a
school in group B has twenty-one sections, Beija-Flor, in the Special Group, has
forty-four sections.

The Workshops

(Barracões)

It is about a month before the carnival parade and I'm going to visit my first carnival workshop. I must get permission from someone in authority in each shop to
visit and take pictures since each school's workshop is supposedly guarded against
spies from other schools. This is no small task! Zé calls a number of the shops but
mostly we are told to call back later or that we must speak with someone else, and
so on. No one wants to be responsible to let in an outsider. Finally, we simply get in
the car and drive to the dockland area of the city where most of the shops are located. It is around two o'clock in the afternoon, the temperature is close to 100
degrees, and very humid.
We find a run-down group of buildings which house the workshops for
Imperatriz, Viradouro, Grande Rio, Beija-Flor, and had housed Ilha until a huge fire
the week before destroyed their shop and most of their work. Each school maintains its own workshop-mostly abandoned warehouses with poor lighting-for
building the floats and many of the hand-held props. Some of the workshops also

(Page 37, top to bottom)
Beija-Flor's Baianas spinning
(photo by Jose Henrique
Moreira); Mocidade's
Harlequin float; Baianas in
the Grande Rio parade;
sewing miles of ruffles in
Grand Rio's costume shop.
(This page)
Above: Costumed section
for Beija-Flor.
Right: Beija-Flor seamstress'
son tries on a costume.
(All photos by author
except as noted.)



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2001

Contents
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2001 - 1
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2001 - 2
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2001 - 3
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2001 - Contents
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