IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - July/August 2014 - 34

and communication technologies. smart grid technologies,
for example, could be deployed to monitor and prevent abuse
or misuse of shss-thereby improving their acceptance and
sustainability-and to achieve proper battery management.
smart utility-scale, hybrid off-grid systems using minigrids represent an important option that allows for the
deployment of locally available energy sources and the
opportunity to provide round-the-clock electric service.
such a system (see figure 4) can reduce diesel fuel consumption by 50-75%, depending on load conditions, compared
with diesel operation alone. generator running hours at full
load can be reduced to 40%, while energy cost based on life
cycle can be reduced by some 50%.

Bringing Power to the
People Is Not Enough
The achievement of universal access to electricity has to go
beyond traditional thinking. Though centralized grid systems
will continue to play a major role in power supply, the electrification of rural and remote areas in developing countries
will increasingly be based on decentralized power facilities.
cost reduction is a critical issue because one of the biggest obstacles in extending electrification to rural communities is the up-front cost of the investment. To reduce costs,
further conceptual and technical developments are needed,
and low-cost innovations must be mainstreamed in electricity distribution systems.
furthermore, advanced concepts for off-grid electrification,
including hybrid systems and such components as PV, storage
facilities, and fuel cells, need further development and cost
reduction. individual shss are an attractive option for satisfying
initial electricity needs. as well-being increases, however, so
does electricity demand, with the consequence that at a certain
point a more powerful electricity supply is needed. This evolution is one of the reasons why any rural electrification activity
should be designed and implemented within an overall policy
framework and in a well-planned manner.
advanced technical concepts and applications need
appropriate and international technical standards. standards
specific to a donor country must be avoided because they can
lead to higher investment costs, difficulties with operation
and maintenance, and lower reliability of service. There is,
therefore, reason to investigate whether there is room for the
formulation of generic technical standards for rural electrification facilities for both grid-based and off-grid systems.
not only the development of advanced technical concepts
needs attention. equally important is the adoption by governments and utilities in the developing world of low-cost
practices adapted for rural application.
Bringing power to the people is not enough. The financial, institutional, and business dimensions of the task are
all challenging. To address them, governments, utilities,
civil society, the donor community, and other stakeholders will have to work together much more closely than in
the past. improved donor coordination and harmonization
34

ieee power & energy magazine

is another important goal, so as to allow for efficient and
effective decision-making processes and cooperation.
energy service businesses need to be developed and
established; a strong commitment on the part of the international donor community must be achieved; international
financial support for investments in rural development must
be mobilized; human capacities must be developed; and a
legal and institutional business environment must be created. last but not least, a worldwide coordination and cooperation of all stakeholders must be realized.
The electrification of currently unserved or underserved
areas is marked by special features and, being part of a
development process, it requires a holistic approach and an
important contribution and sense of ownership on the part
of government. The focus must be on the local context and
on the local community and private sector involved.
one major challenge is the development of relevant capacity and knowledge in the developing world. local technicians
and appliance shops are needed, and the customer base must
be informed and educated. and particularly in the case of
private or community-owned power systems, the managerial
and administrative aspects need to be addressed. capacity
building is needed, not only in the developing world but also
in the donor community and among other stakeholders, to
enable a fast response to the needs of developing countries.
The challenges are immense and many are the opportunities. The technical community, including ieee, can
make a significant contribution.

For Further Reading
"The challenge of rural electrification," resources for the future/
esmaP, Washington dc, 2007; isBn 978-1-933115-43-6.
"rural electrification: Utilities' chafe or challenge?," Twente
University Press, enschede, The netherlands; 2001; isBn
9036515556. [online]: available: http:/doc.utwente.nl/38683/
"rural electrification and development in the Philippines:
measuring the social and economic benefits" sm. esmaP
2002, The World Bank, Washington, dc rep. esm 255.
This article includes information from recent cigrÉ
events. more detailed information can be found in the following documents.
"small-scale rural electricity providers: opportunities and
challenges," Paper c6_307_2010, in Proc. CIGRÉ Conf.,
2010, Paris.
g. dagbjartsson, T. gaunt, and a. n. Zomers. (2007). scoping report Wg c6-13. [online]. available: www.cigre-c6.org/
publications/other-documents
a. n. Zomers, d. Waddle, J. mutale, and a. kooijmanvan dijk, "The global electrification challenge: The case of
rural and remote areas," in Proc. Electra, vol. 259, Paris, dec.
2011, pp. 16-29.

Biography
Adriaan Zomers is with alliander for cigrÉ activities.

p&e

july/august 2014


http://doc.utwente.nl/38683/ http://www.cigre-c6.org/

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - July/August 2014

IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - July/August 2014 - Cover1
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - July/August 2014 - Cover2
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - July/August 2014 - 1
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - July/August 2014 - 2
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - July/August 2014 - 3
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - July/August 2014 - 4
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - July/August 2014 - 5
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - July/August 2014 - 6
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - July/August 2014 - 7
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - July/August 2014 - 8
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - July/August 2014 - 9
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - July/August 2014 - 10
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - July/August 2014 - 11
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - July/August 2014 - 12
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - July/August 2014 - 13
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - July/August 2014 - 14
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - July/August 2014 - 15
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - July/August 2014 - 16
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - July/August 2014 - 17
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - July/August 2014 - 18
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - July/August 2014 - 19
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - July/August 2014 - 20
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - July/August 2014 - 21
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - July/August 2014 - 22
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - July/August 2014 - 23
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - July/August 2014 - 24
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - July/August 2014 - 25
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - July/August 2014 - 26
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - July/August 2014 - 27
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - July/August 2014 - 28
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - July/August 2014 - 29
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - July/August 2014 - 30
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - July/August 2014 - 31
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - July/August 2014 - 32
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - July/August 2014 - 33
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - July/August 2014 - 34
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - July/August 2014 - 35
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - July/August 2014 - 36
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - July/August 2014 - 37
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - July/August 2014 - 38
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - July/August 2014 - 39
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - July/August 2014 - 40
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - July/August 2014 - 41
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - July/August 2014 - 42
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - July/August 2014 - 43
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - July/August 2014 - 44
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - July/August 2014 - 45
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - July/August 2014 - 46
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - July/August 2014 - 47
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - July/August 2014 - 48
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - July/August 2014 - 49
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - July/August 2014 - 50
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - July/August 2014 - 51
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - July/August 2014 - 52
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - July/August 2014 - 53
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - July/August 2014 - 54
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - July/August 2014 - 55
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - July/August 2014 - 56
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - July/August 2014 - 57
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - July/August 2014 - 58
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - July/August 2014 - 59
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - July/August 2014 - 60
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - July/August 2014 - 61
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - July/August 2014 - 62
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - July/August 2014 - 63
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - July/August 2014 - 64
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - July/August 2014 - 65
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - July/August 2014 - 66
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - July/August 2014 - 67
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - July/August 2014 - 68
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - July/August 2014 - 69
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - July/August 2014 - 70
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - July/August 2014 - 71
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - July/August 2014 - 72
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - July/August 2014 - 73
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - July/August 2014 - 74
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - July/August 2014 - 75
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - July/August 2014 - 76
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - July/August 2014 - 77
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - July/August 2014 - 78
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - July/August 2014 - 79
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - July/August 2014 - 80
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - July/August 2014 - 81
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - July/August 2014 - 82
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - July/August 2014 - 83
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - July/August 2014 - 84
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - July/August 2014 - 85
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - July/August 2014 - 86
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - July/August 2014 - 87
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - July/August 2014 - 88
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - July/August 2014 - 89
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - July/August 2014 - 90
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - July/August 2014 - 91
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - July/August 2014 - 92
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - July/August 2014 - 93
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - July/August 2014 - 94
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - July/August 2014 - 95
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - July/August 2014 - 96
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - July/August 2014 - Cover3
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - July/August 2014 - Cover4
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_050621
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_030421
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_010221
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_111220
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_091020
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_070820
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_050620
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_030420
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_010220
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_111219
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_091019
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_070819
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_050619
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_030419
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_010219
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_111218
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_091018
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_070818
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_050618
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_030418
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_010218
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_111217
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_091017
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_070817
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_050617
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_030417
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_010217
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_111216
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_091016
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_070816
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_050616
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_030416
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_010216
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/powerenergy_010216
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_111215
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_091015
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_070815
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_050615
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_030415
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_010215
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_111214
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_091014
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_070814
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_050614
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_030414
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_010214
https://www.nxtbookmedia.com