JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - 64

KNOW-HOW Testing g…/… Non-destructive evaluation The most important issue in selecting a non-destructive evaluation (NDE) technique is the number and types of flaws contained within a material. Generally speaking, monolithic ceramics have some degree of porosity and dislocations while ceramic-matrix composites contain several types of defects, including interlaminar porosity and processing-induced voids. To consider when and how various NDE techniques can be best applied to the examination of ceramic materials, this paper overviews the following approaches: ultrasonic testing (UT), radiography, x-ray computed tomography (CT) and acoustic emission (AE). specimen during the scan (Figure 1b). Thermal management and thermal stresses are critical issues in many ceramics applications. Ultrasonic testing Ultrasonic testing is one of the most widely used NDE techniques for quality control and service-integrity evaluation because of its relatively low cost and convenience of data acquisition. Generally, UT can be used to detect flaws, determine the size, shape, and location of defects and identify discontinuities in materials. The determination of ultrasonic velocities can also be used to measure the modulus of elasticity of advanced ceramics and liquid polymers. In ultrasonic testing, beams of high-frequency sound waves are introduced into materials so as to detect both surface and internal flaws. The sound waves travel through the material (with some attendant loss of energy) and are deflected at interfaces and/or defects. The deflected beam can be displayed and analyzed to assess the presence of flaws or discontinuities. Most ultrasonic inspections are performed at frequencies between 0.1 MHz and 25 MHz. A number of ultrasonic evaluation methods such as A-, B-, and Cscans have been used to study various types of flaws in ceramic materials. The A-scan provides one-dimensional defect information. In the oscilloscope view, the signal displays the pulse and amplitude against time. A-scan display is commonly used to measure material thickness. The B-scan displays a parallel set of A-scans with twodimensional data. It can also be used to inspect rotating tubes and pipes because it provides a cross-sectional view of defect distribution. The C-scan is the most widely-used scan mode as it provides a two-dimensional presentation of defect distribution. It displays the size and position of flaws in an area parallel to the surface through the raster scan of two axes. A C-scan presentation is a very effective way to investigate flaw distribution since the presence of the flaw and its severity can be readily indicated on a drawing of the part being inspected. To measure the time of flight or attenuation of the UT signal, the UT scan mode may be employed in either a through-transmission mode (using both a transmitting transducer and a receiving transducer) or a pulse-echo mode (using a single pulser/receiver transducer), see Figure 1 & 2. In Figure 1a, the pulser/receiver transducer is used to generate ultrasonic sound waves and receive the reflected beams. The transducer obtains the travelling soundwave signals, which are displayed on the oscilloscope with amplitudes against the travelling time. Finally, a computer gathers the amplitudes and forms a scan image. In the TTU mode, the transmitting transducer (pulser) and receiving transducer (receiver) are aligned, and the beam path is kept perpendicular to the test Fig. 1: Ultrasonic scanning set-ups: (a) pulse-echo mode with a pulser/receiver transducer and (b) through-transmission using a pair of focused transducers in an immersion tank Fig. 2: Ultrasonic C-scans for woven Nicalon/SiC tensile specimens. Relative amplitudes range from 0 (least relative amplitude) to 1 (greatest amplitude). Composite micromechanical model Micromechanics techniques are used to predict the effective properties and deformation response of the individual plies in the composite laminate. The laminate theory is then used to compute the effective stress and deformation response of the entire composite. The materials are assumed to have periodic, square fibre packing and a perfect interfacial bond. Thermal effects will also be examined both experimentally and analytically. The fibres are assumed to be transversely isotropic and linearly elastic with a circular cross-section. The matrix is assumed to be isotropic, with a rate dependent, non-linear deformation response that is computed using the equations described below. The deformation can be determined experimentally by optical interferometry. In double exposure, holographic interferometry is applied to determine the displacement under load. High strength-to-weight or high stiffness-to-weight ratios for anisotropic composites like carbon/boron/PEEK or carbon/boron/PPS under different combinations of applied stress components (biaxial and triaxial stress conditions) pose a challenge JEC Composites Magazine / No35 September 2007

JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007

Edito
CONTENTS
NEWS WORLDWIDE
- Companies
- Agenda of events
- 2008 JEC Singapore
BUSINESS
- Market survey
- Niche markets
- Trends
- Human capital
FEATURE - MARINE
- Market
- Raw Materials
- Process
- Application
USERS’ PLATFORM
- Composites in the world
- Successful partners
- Applications
KNOW-HOW
- Warp knitting technology
- Testing
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - 1
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JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - Edito
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JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - CONTENTS
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - 7
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - - Companies
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - 9
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - - Agenda of events
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - 11
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - - 2008 JEC Singapore
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - 13
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - 14
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - 15
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - - Market survey
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - 17
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - 18
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JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - - Niche markets
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - 25
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - - Trends
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - 27
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - 28
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - 29
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - - Human capital
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - 31
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - - Market
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - 33
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - - Raw Materials
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - 35
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - 36
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - 37
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - 38
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - 39
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - - Process
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - 41
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - 42
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JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - 47
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - - Application
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - 49
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - - Composites in the world
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - - Successful partners
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - 52
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - 53
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - 54
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - 55
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - 56
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - 57
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - - Warp knitting technology
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - 59
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - 60
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - 61
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - 62
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - - Testing
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - 64
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