# IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - April 2023 - 21

```Results and Discussion
In this section, the simulation results
obtained for all six architectures are discussed.
Table 1 shows the simulation
results of all possible system architectures.
The system architectures in -
clude PV+LIB, PV+WT+LIB, WT+LB,
PV+WT+SC, PV+SC, and WT+SC. The different
parameters are considered for
analysis as capacity of solar PV, WT, LIB
and SC, CoE, NPC, electricity production
from solar PV and WT, autonomy hours
of LIB and SC, and nominal capacity of
LIB and SC.
The capacity of solar PVs for the
1.4
1.2
1
0.8
0.6
architecture of PV+LIB, PV+WT+LIB,
PV+WT+SC, and PV+SC is 6.4 kW, 6.24 kW,
15.8 kW, and 17.32 kW, respectively. The
capacity of WTs for the configurations of
PV+WT+LIB, WT+LB, PV+WT+SC, and
WT+SC are 1 kW, 35 kW, 2 kW, and 71 kW,
respectively. Without solar PVs, the capacity
of the WT with SC is doubled when compared
to WT+LB.
If the rating of LIB is considered, its capacity for the
0.4
0.2
system configurations of PV+LIB, PV+WT+LIB, and
WT+LB are 12 kWh, 12 kWh, and 64 kWh, respectively.
Without the presence of solar PVs, the capacity required
for LIB is more than five times the capacity required with
solar PVs.
The number of strings required for SC is 136, 145, and
978 for the system configurations of PV+WT+SC, PV+SC,
and WT+SC, respectively. Each string consists of eight
numbers (connected in series) of 3,000 F, 3-V SC. Based
on the simulation results, with the absence of solar PVs,
the number of strings required for WT+SC is very high to
provide the sufficient backup power supply to the loads.
The CoE and NPC play an important role in obtaining
the optimum system architecture for a given location. To
calculate the CoE, Homer Pro divides the annualized
cost of producing electricity (the total annualized cost
minus the cost of serving the thermal load) by the total
electric load served. The CoE for the system architecture
of PV+LIB, PV+WT+LIB, WT+LB, PV+WT+SC,
PV+SC, and WT+SC is \$0.200/kWh, \$0.213/kWh, \$1.18/kWh,
\$2.21/kWh, \$2.33/kWh, and \$15.43/kWh, respectively.
The minimum CoE value (\$0.2/kWh) is obtained for the
PV+LIB architecture and the maximum CoE value is
\$15.43/kWh for WT+SC. The total NPC of a system is the
present value of all costs the system incurs over its
lifetime, minus the present value of all of the revenue
it earns over its lifetime. Costs include capital costs,
replacement costs, operation and maintenance (O&M)
costs, fuel costs, emissions penalties, and the costs of
buying power from the grid. Revenues include salvage
value and grid sales revenue. The NPCs for the system
a rch it ec t u re of PV+L IB, PV+WT+L IB, WT+LB,
PV+WT+SC, PV+SC, and WT+SC are \$7,334, \$7,821.4,
\$43,394, \$81,117, \$85,497, and \$56,5321, respectively. The
minimum NPC value is obtained for PV+LIB architecture
and is increased by 6%, 581%, 1,106%, 1,165%, and
7,708% for PV+WT+LIB, WT+LB, PV+WT+SC, PV+SC, and
WT+SC, respectively. Hence, the best architecture for
the selected location is PV+LIB.
8
6
4
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6
5
4
3
2
1
Figure 4. Month-wise average wind velocity.
April 2023 IEEE SYSTEMS, MAN, & CYBERNETICS MAGAZINE 21
January 1
January 15
January 29
Wind Velocity m/s
kWh/day/m2
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April 9
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June 4
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July 2
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July 30
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September 10
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December 3
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January
February
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April
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June
July
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November
January
February
March
April
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December
December
```

# IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - April 2023

## Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - April 2023

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