IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2015 - 35

observed in the data for any 5-min
window during spring mornings
was imposed on the light-load
system case. This case represents
Wind
a deliberately extreme statistical
Others Wind
8.4
5.3
Others
5.5
outlier for the system, with the
11.7
PV 0.3
extreme wind and solar producPV 0.8
CSP 0.0
tion imposed on a very low system
DG 0.4
CSP 0.0
DG 0.2
load and aggressive decommitment of other generation.
Limited transmission reinforcements (e.g., synchronous condensWind
ers and shunt compensation) were
4.7
Wind
Others
Others
added when the high renewables
6.9
11.4
15.1
PV 5.8
overstressed local areas. However,
CSP 1.5
no major transmission projects
PV 3.3
were added beyond those included
DG 3.7
in the WECC planning cases. This
DG 2.6
CSP 7.0
is an important point, as there is
Production/Dispatch in Gigawatts
no assumed major transmission
build-out accompanying the incremental wind and solar added to the
figure 3. Wind and solar generation in the light spring high-mix case.
base cases.
An overview of the renewable generation for the light-load
scenarios is shown in Figures 2
and 3. The extreme light-load sensitivity case is shown in Figure 4.
Wind
Others
Each pie chart represents a differ4.1 Wind
Others 8.3
9.3
ent region: California, the North7.0
PV 0.2
DG 0.7
CSP 0.0
west (approximately Oregon and
CSP 0.0
DG 0.1
Washington), the Desert SouthPV 0.7
west (approximately Arizona, New
Mexico, Nevada, and Colorado),
and the Northeast (approximately
Wind
Utah, Idaho, Montana, and WyoOthers
Others 4.5
ming). The rooftop PV systems are
Wind
9.1
12.4
10.9
shown in blue and distinguished
PV 7.5
from utility-scale PVs, shown in
DG
DG 3.8 CSP
CSP 2.2
5.7
yellow, by the label "DG" (distrib6.1
PV 5.1
uted generation). Green represents
wind, and red represents concenProduction/Dispatch in Gigawatts
trating solar thermal power (CSP).
For these three cases, the fraction
of total generation (i.e., the instantaneous penetration) that comes figure 4. Wind and solar generation in the light spring extreme case.
from wind and solar in the U.S.
portion of the Western Interconnection is 29%, 56%, and move, flow patterns on the bulk power system can be sub64%, respectively.
stantially impacted. Power transfer levels on individual
transmission lines and, more importantly, on interregional
paths are critical to transient stability performance. This
Flow Patterns
raises an interesting question of causality for changes in
and Generation Technology
When wind and solar displace thermal and hydro genera- transient stability: Are changes in flow patterns, or differtion, the location of the generation changes, along with ences in generation characteristics, driving differences in
the technology producing the power. Since the loads don't transient stability performance?
november/december 2015

ieee power & energy magazine

35



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2015

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