IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 86

business. It aims at decomposing the electric power system
by interoperability layers, domains, and zones.
The SGAM interoperability layers provide the basis for
representing both the business aspects of smart grid functions as well as the technical requirements. This can help
with the need to evaluate the effects of different regulatory and economic (market) structures and policies on the
requirements for integrated grid functions. The technical
details are modeled in the SGAM on the four lower layers:
✔ The function layer describes functions and services
including their relationships following business needs.
Functions are represented independent from their
physical implementation in systems or devices (implementations are represented in the component layer).
✔ The information layer describes the information that
is being used and exchanged between functions.
It contains information objects and the underlying
canonical data models.
✔ The emphasis of the communication layer is to
describe mechanisms and protocols for the interoperable exchange of information between functions.
✔ Finally, the component layer shows the physical distribution of all participating components. This includes
power system equipment (typically located at process
and field level), protection and control devices, network
infrastructure (wired/wireless communication connections, routers, and switches) and any kind of computers.
For a specific implementation, the identified functions
can be mapped onto components complementing the
relationships between all layers.
The IEC has adopted the SGAM approach to describe
some of its standards. For instance, the IEC reference architecture for Smart Grid Information Exchange is illustrated in
Figure 4 using SGAM Domain and Zone mapping.
Business requirements and requirements for information exchanges within the SGAM are developed based on
a use case approach (IEC 62913 series). Use cases are used
to define both business processes and specific functions that
make up these processes. Requirements for specific information exchanges and data models are developed at the function level. Two primary sets of standards are used to compile
these data models and information exchange requirements.
✔ The 61850 series of standards provides fundamental
device-level data models and device-level information
exchange requirements and protocols.
✔ The Common Information Model (CIM) series of
standards provides the system-level information models and information exchange messages needed for
integration at the systems level.
The relationship between these standards is described in the
new reference architecture developed by the IEC.
The introduction of distributed resources in this architecture dramatically expands the functional requirements
for the distribution system. In the New York effort to redefine the role of the distribution system in the Reforming the
86

ieee power & energy magazine

Energy Vision order from the Department of Public Service,
they defined a concept that they call the distribution system
platform (DSP). As shown in Figure 5, this new role of the
distribution system has interfaces to the bulk power system
management to provide flexibility and demand management
services, interfaces to the traditional elements of a distribution system to maintain reliability, and interfaces to customers and distributed resources to make them part of the entire
grid operation. These interfaces apply in a range of time
frames from planning to real time operations.
The concept of the distribution system operator as a facilitator of the integrated grid has been proposed in the IEC
architecture as well. This new role will require a transition
from passive to active networks and modification of existing roles and business processes for system operators at all
levels (distributed, transmission, generation), as well as many
other stakeholders (see Figure 6). One specific research project in Europe, EvolvDSO, has looked at actual implementations of these integrated grid models in multiple large-scale
demonstrations.
The efforts to create and demonstrate the characteristics of
the new active (integrated) distribution system have resulted
in some basic requirements for ongoing development:
✔ the improvement of network planning, operation, and
maintenance processes to optimize network investments
✔ enhanced cooperation between system operators at all
levels, as well as generators, consumers, and retailers,
through market mechanisms as much as possible
✔ the need to contract and activate flexibilities at different time frames to optimize network design and
operations and solve specific network constraints, in
coordination with existing market principles/rules and
in a neutral and transparent way
✔ the ability to facilitate and enable electricity markets
in a neutral and transparent way
✔ the possibility to provide data-based services to
external roles such as EHV and HV system operator,
energy regulators, or local authorities, to facilitate
national and local public policies and enable customer
empowerment when HV and MV/LV system operators are required to provide these services and in conformity with the regulatory framework
✔ the increasing sharing of data between operators and
models at different levels, as well as retailers and other
service providers
✔ increased control system interactions among grid
operators, retailers, and other service providers.

The Information Architecture
The integration of distributed resources introduces a whole
new set of requirements for the information architecture.
These requirements involve information exchanges between
many different stakeholders, each of which has different
purposes and business drivers. Figure 7 illustrates some of
these important stakeholder relationships.
january/february 2016



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016

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IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - Cover3
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