IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2021 - 90

Finalmente, las FED deben ser capaces de cambiar de
su modo de operación conectado a la red a su modo de isla
mientras continúan suministrando potencia. En la microrred
del CEP, esto requiere que los cogeneradores cambien del
control del punto de ajuste de potencia al control isócrono
mientras continúan suministrando potencia. Los controles
del cogenerador hacen esto automáticamente según el estado
del interruptor de interconexión.
Papel del controlador de microrred en
el modo de isla continuo y no planeado
El controlador de la microrred decide si está lista para la
transferencia y comunica este estado a los relés de protección.
Como se muestra en la figura 7, se pueden examinar
tres cantidades clave para determinar la disponibilidad de
transferencia:
1) carga total
2) capacidad de generación en línea (también conocida
como reserva en funcionamiento)
3) flujo eléctrico de los servicios públicos.
La carga de la microrred y la capacidad de generación
en línea son factores importantes para determinar la
Servicios públicos
Falla
R
44 kV
12 kV
R
52 CB52-1
K
Leyenda:
R
Relé multifunción
(Basado en microprocesador)
Enclavamiento de llave
disponibilidad de transferencia porque la carga no debe
exceder la generación disponible. Si se desea comprender
por qué el flujo eléctrico de la empresa de servicios públicos
es un factor importante para determinar la disponibilidad
de transferencia, hay que considerar lo que sucederá cuando
se dispare el interruptor de interconexión. La potencia que
estaba proporcionando la empresa de servicios públicos
ahora de repente debe ser suministrada por las FED. Las
fuentes de microrred deben tener la capacidad de aceptar esa
carga escalonada sin apagarse y sin un cambio objetable en
la tensión o la frecuencia. Los sistemas de baterías de iones
de litio se destacan en la aceptación de carga porque normalmente
pueden cambiar la salida de potencia rápidamente en
todo su rango en milisegundos. Los cogeneradores de gas
natural tardan más en aceptar la carga porque el cambio de
la potencia de salida del motor es más gradual, y tarda varios
segundos en pasar de potencia nula a la nominal. Por lo tanto,
si el sistema de batería no está disponible para el despacho,
el controlador de la microrred debe verificar si la cantidad de
potencia desde la red eléctrica está dentro de la capacidad de
aceptación de carga de los cogeneradores antes de considerar
que la microrred está lista para la transferencia.
12 kV
600 V
12 kV
600 V
R
Corriente de falla
(Disparo)
Bloqueo
de disparo
R
Corriente de
falla
CHP
265 kW
CB3
R
Corriente de
falla
CHP
265 kW
CB4
R
CA
CC
Sistema de
batería
250 kW
Solar
8 kW
figura 8. Un ejemplo de detección de fallas de servicios públicos.
90
ieee power & energy magazine
mayo/junio 2021
CB1 (Punto de interconexión) CB2
K
CB5
R
CA
CC
Memorial
Gardens
YMCA
Thomson
Park
Cargas de los clientes
R
Nodo de dispositivos de
conmutación de 600 V
CB6 R RR CB9
CB7
CB8
Microrred

IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2021

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2021

Contents
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2021 - Cover1
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IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2021 - Cover3
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2021 - Cover4
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